INTRODUCTION: Garden Peas is one of the most popular winter vegetable crop grown in almost all types of agro-climates especially in mountainous mid hill regions of J&K.
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS: Peas require a cool growing season and moderate temperatures are essential throughout the growing season.
For germination, about 22°C temperature is considered favourable. High temperatures are more injurious to pea crop than frost.
Frost can damage the pea plant during flowering stage. Green peas are most sensitive to moisture stress at flowering stage.
High humidity is harmful to pea crop as it favour incidence of diseases. The optimum monthly temperature suitable for its growth is 13-18oC.
SOIL AND ITS PREPARATION: Pea is highly sensitive to water logging conditions, hence, a well drained loam soil is considered best for pea cultivation. It tolerates a moderate soil pH range (6.0 to 7.5).
For garden peas, the field should be ploughed with one deep ploughing followed by 2-3 harrowings and plankings to prepare a well pulverized field. Avoid powdery seedbed.
Field should be well leveled and should be prepared after pre-sowing irrigation to ensure adequate moisture at the time of sowing.
VARIETIES: The recommended varieties of garden peas under intermediate zone are given below:
Arkel: It is a wrinkle-seeded dwarf variety. Pods are ready for picking after 60 days of sowing.
Long, bent at the stigmatic end, pods look very sound at full maturity. Average yield of green pods is 80-90 quintal per hectare.
P-89: Late maturing variety. Pods are dark green, 9-10 cm long and slightly curved at the end. The yield of green pods is about 150-200 quintal per hectare.
Bonnevillae: Late maturing variety.
AP-1: Main season varietyPods are dark green long (8-10 cm) narrow (1.2-4 cm), 8-10 seeds/pod
Pant Matar-2: It is cross between Early Badger and Pant Uphar. Pods are ready to harvest 60 days after sowing. The average yield is 100 quintals per hectare.
Pant Sabzi Matar-3: It is a cross between Arkel and GC 141. It is tolerant to powdery mildew. Pods are ready to harvest 60-65 days after sowing.
SEED AND SOWING: Before sowing the seeds of garden peas it should be treated with Thiram at the rate of 0.25 per cent. The optimum time for sowing of garden peas is from 15th September to 15th October in intermediate zone of J&K.
Late sowing may lead to poor flowering and pod formation as the night temperature in later months falls below 0oC.
|Early maturing||30 x 10cm||4.0 per kanal|
|Late maturing||40 x 10cm||3.0 per kanal|
MANURES AND FERTILISERS
Being a leguminous crop, the pea does not require high doses of nitrogen. If available, about 200 quintals of farmyard manure should be incorporated in the soil at the time of land preparation.
This should be supplemented with 20-30 kg nitrogen as a starter dose per hectare as a basal dressing at the time of sowing which can meet plant requirement before the formation of nodules.
Phosphorus and potassium should be applied@ 60-70 kg and- 30-40 kg per hectare respectively. Mixture of all the fertilizers should be given 4-5 cm away from the rows and 4-5 cm deeper from seed.
IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE: Pea crop can tolerate drought condition to some extent. By providing one or two irrigations higher yields can be obtained.
First irrigation should be given at 45 days and second, if needed, at pod filling stage. Light and uniform irrigation should be given.
Water logging condition in pea field, even for a day, causes considerable loss in the yield since this crop is highly sensitive to poor drainage conditions.
Soil moisture can be tested from time to time.
WEED CONTROL: The pea field should be free from weeds for a period of 40-50 days after sowing.
Therefore, the field should be kept free from weeds by giving two weedings and hoeings after three and six weeks of germination. Weedicides like Basalin and Tribunil can be used safely for weed control.
Basalin at the rate of 0.75 kg (a.i.) in 800-1000 litres of water as pre-planting spray may be used as effective herbicide. It should be well incorporated in the soil before sowing.
In case Basalin is not available, use 2.5 kg Tribunil in 800-1000 litres of water per hectare as pre-emergence spray.
DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL
The important diseases of pea are wilt, root rot, powdery mildew and rust.
Wilt and root rot
The roots rot and plants show yellowing of the lowermost leaves, followed by wilting. These diseases cause considerable damage when the crop is sown early.
- Treat the seed with 2.5 g of Ceresan or Brassicol or 2 g of Captan per kg of seed before sowing.
- Avoid early sowing in badly infested areas.
The symptoms first appear on the leaves and then on other green parts of the plant.
They are characterised by white powdery, patchy growth on both the surfaces of the leaf and also on the tendrils, pods, and stem.
In advanced stage, entire plant’s surface may be covered with white powder
In case of severe infection the plant dies prematurely.
- Avoid late planting.
- After harvest, collect the plants left in the field and burn them.
- Two to three sprays of any of the wettable Sulphur compounds like Sulfex, Elosal or Hexasual at the rate of 3 kg per hectare in 1000 litres ofwater.
- Give the first spray after appearance of the disease in the crop. The second spray should be done 14 days after the first spray and the third spray only if there is a need for it.
The stem of the plant becomes malformed and the affected plant dies. All the green parts of the plants are affected.
The earliest symptoms are the yellow spots which later turn powdery and light brown in appearance.
- After harvest, the affected plant trash should be burnt.
- Spray the crop with Dithane M-45@ 2 kg per hectare in 1000 litres of water.
INSECT PESTS AND THEIR CONTROL
Pea stem fly
The adult fly 1ayseggs in the plant tissues and the maggots damage the internal tissues of the stem and ultimately the entire plant dies. Damage is more severe in early plantings.
- Mix 1.5kg/kanal Furadon or 200g/kanal Thimet granules in the soil before sowing the crop.
- When plants attain 10-15 cm height, spraying with 0.04 per cent Thiodan should be done.
Larvae feed by making tunnels in the leaves. They cause serious damage during December to March.
- Spray 250 ml of Dimecron 100 EC in 1000 litres of water per hectare when the attack begins and repeat at 15 days interval.
They suck the sap of the cells, owing to which the leaves turn pale and yellow. In case of server infestation the plant growth is checked.
- Spray 250 ml Dimecron 100 EC in 1000 litres of water per hectare.
They bore into the pods and feed on the grains inside. Generally late sown crop is damaged more by this insect pest.
HARVESTING AND THRESHING: As stated above different varieties of garden pea have varying maturity periods.
The picking of green pods should be done by giving a simple jerk to the pedicel with minimum possible disturbance to the plant.
Crop for seed should be harvested when it is fully ripe and threshed after sufficient drying in the sun.
YIELD: With improved package of practices, one may expect about 100-125 quintals of green pods per hectare and about 15-20 quintals of grain and about same quantity of straw from one hectare of land.
STORAGE: Unshelled pea pods can be kept better than shelled pea. At room temperature the pods can be kept for two to three days provided they are frequently sprayed with fresh water but in cold storage they can be kept for 15 to 20 days at 0oC with 85 to 90 per cent relative humidity.
Important points to be remembered for obtaining higher yields in peas
- For proper germination presoaking is advisable especially in dried conditions.
- Inoculation of pea seeds with pea nodule bacterium culture is recommended when peas are planted for the first time and also when the crop is to be grown on poor soil.
- Taller pea varieties are more productive and easier to harvest if caged, trellised, or fenced with wooden poles, wire cages, or other fencing materials.
- Avoid water or heat stress just prior to or after the flowers open to minimize flower drop.
- Stringiness in pea pods can be avoided by keeping the soil moist and mulch later plantings.
Sh. Anil Bhushan
ACHR, Udheywalla, SKUAST-J