Floriculture, an ancient farm activity with great potential for generating rumenerative self- employment among small and marginal farmers besides earning the badly needed foreign exchange.
The Indian floriculture sector is becoming more aware of the importance of tuning of the market and offering products according to the consumer’s wishes. Now-a-days, quality cut flowers are in great demand in local as well as in international markets. Quality of flower is determined by many factors viz., shape and size.
Its bloom, colour of flower, fragrance, stem length, stem strength, number of flowers per stem, development of the flower, pests and diseases etc.
There are various factors which lead to enhancement of quality and quantity of cut flower crops. Among these factors, disbudding is one of the important factor which results in quality flower production.
The perfect market flower is carried singly on a long stem and to achieve this condition the operation of disbudding is carried out. It is an important operation in the maintainance of high quality products.
This operation cannot be done in each and every ornamental plant but have got some definine flowers (roses and herbaceous perennials) that respond very well to it.
Disbudding means “the removal of surplus bloom buds just at the beginning of growth”. The main aim of disbudding is to remove buds from a plant so as to promote better blooms from the remaining buds or control the shape of the plant and to thin out buds to improve the quality of the flower by diverting the food, light and space to the remaining flowers.
When to Disbud
Disbudding should be performed as soon as the lateral buds are large enough to “rool out” without damage to the terminal bud. At this time the tissues are soft enough so that the task goes quickly.
If delayed, the lateral buds became “woody” and become difficult to remove requiring more labour. It also increases the chance of breaking the stem, and thus ruining the product.
Grow Roses through Disbudding
The practice of disbudding applied to grow roses also that can produce some impressive results in the size and quality of the bloom. This is how you get those big lovely long-stemmed roses.
When disbudding for one bloom to a stem roses, such as hybrid Tea roses, remove all the side buds by leaving the central bud that develop at the leaf axils below the main bloom.
This is done by rubbing the tiny buds out from of the angle created between the leaf and stem (Figure 1). It is easily done with the fingers or pair of tweezers.
Those varieties that produce good firm bloom should be disbudded so as to leave only one flower bud to swell and develop on a shoot. In case of miniature roses, the side buds are removed leaving the top bud.
The remaining bud at the top of the stem will grow larger and give a better bloom without competition of side buds. In case of disbudding floribundas, it should be borne in mind that a side bud further down the cane should also be removed otherwise this bud may develop into a flower that is much lower than the rest of the spray.
Fig. Disbudding of side bud in roses
Disbudding for a spray rose is done in the opposite manner. In this case, the central bud is removed because the center bud develops more quickly and will be in the process of dying when the side buds will fill in the hole left by the removal of the center bud and shape.
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A spray, for show purposes, must contain two or more blossoms and three or more blossoms are best. If trying for a spray, be sure that the multiple buds have at least three buds of about the same size so that they will be open at the same time to give the desired blossom count. Landscape roses and polyanthus needs no disbudding.
Calendar to Grow Roses through Disbudding
March: Disbud or remove the side buds on hybrid Tea roses for larger blooms and the center buds on floribundas for larger sprays.
April: Remove all short-twiggy growth as it forms.
May: Disbud new bloom stems if desired.
June: Continue disbudding to obtain larger blooms.
Sumina Ramzan1, Reena Gupta2 and Shanaz Ramzan3
1,3 Research Scholar, Department of Floriculture, SKAUST-K
2 Research Scholar, Mushroom Department, Udhampur