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Tuberose Cultivation: How to Grow Tuberose flowers

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Tuberose commonly known as Rajni gandha. It produces waxy,  white and fragrant flowers on long spikes, which are mostly used as cut flowers; for making garlands and extracting essential oil.

Tuberose cultivation is getting popular in North India where it blooms during July-Oct.  This period is devoid of cut flowers.

1. Climate

Tuberose grows well in sunny situations. In India, commercial tuberose cultivation is just confined to warm, humid areas with average temperature ranges from 20-35C.

2. Soil and its Preparation

Loam and sandy loam soil having pH range from 6.5-7.5 with good aeration and well drained soils are considered suitable for its cultivation.

The field should be well prepared by giving 2-3 ploughings and incorporating 25-30 tones/ha of well rotten FYM before planting time.

3. Tuberose (Rajni Gandha) Varieties

Calcuttia Single:        Form and Colour: White flower, with petals in a single whorl

Brief description: Single flowers, six petals, scented. About 40 flowers are borne on spikes of length 60 cm

Uses: Cut flower and loose flowers

Calcuttia Double: Form and Colour: White flowering with a pink tinge and petals in two whorls

Brief description: Four whorls of petals not scented. Longer spikes (80 cm) bears only 35 flowers

Salient remarks: Good performance under Jammu condition

Suvasini: Form and Colour: White flowers, with petals in two whorls

Brief description: Double, four whorls of petals, scented. Shorter spikes (50 cm) bearing about 30 flowers /spikes

Salient remarks: Good performance under Jammu conditions

Sringar: Form and Colour: White flowers, with petals in a single whorl

Brief description: Single, six petals, slightly scented, shorter spikes (40 cm) bears about 40 flowers

Salient remarks: Good performance under Jammu condition

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4. Tuberose Planting Time :       March –April

5. Spacing for Effective Tuberose Cultivation:

Intensive cultivation: 20 cm x 20 cm

Ordinary condition   : 40 cm x 40 cm

6. Sowing Depth: 5-7cm deep

7. Manuring:

FYM     :         N         :           P2O5 :           K2O

5 kg                 30g                  20g              10g (per sq. mt.)

25 q                 15kg               10kg            5kg (per  kanal)

50 ton              300kg          200kg        100kg (per  ha.)

Apply ½ N, 30 g P2O5 and 10 g K2O at the time of planting and another ½ dose of N at the time of spike emergence.

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8. Propagation

Tuberose is propagated by bulblets. Treat the bulblets with Bavistin (0.1%) for 30 minutes before planting in the field. Bulb weighing about 40-50 g is suitable for planting.

9. Irrigation

Tuberose (Rajni Gandha) plantation requires sufficient soil moisture for its growth and flower production. The weekly irrigation is required during April-June whereas during Oct – March irrigation at the interval of 15 days is sufficient to meet its requirement.

10. Seed rate

7500 to 8000 bulbs/ Kanal or 1, 50,000 to 1, 60,000 bulbs/ha

11. Earthing Up

Tuberose plants should be earthed up when they attain a height of 30 cm and process is repeated after 2-3 weeks to get a final height of 15 cm of the soil.

12. Interculture

Weeding can be done by two ways

a)         Hand weeding            –           Once in fortnight

b)         Weedicide spray         –           i) Pre-emergence         –           Atrazine @ 1-2 kg/ha

ii) Post emergence       –           Paraquat @ 1-5 kg/ha

13. Harvesting

a)         Loose flowers –           Individual flowers picked when they are fully opened

b)         Spikes              –           When lower pair of flowers is fully opened

14. Vase Life

Tuberose is sensitive to the stresses of storage and transportation. Pulsing treatment with 8% sucrose+8-HQC 200 ppm for 24 hours promoted floret opening, the reduced floret abscission and extended the vase life. Spikes dry stored at 7oC for 24 hours extended the vase life by 2 days.

15. Packaging

The spikes of Tuberose are tied in bundles of about 100 spikes, wrapped in wet newspaper sheet and finally packed in cartoons. Pack loose flowers in baskets.

16. Yield

Cut flowers    –           About 9,000 spikes/Kanal

Tubers             –           About 80,000 bulblets/Kana

17. Bulb Production

Optimum bulb weight for planting is 40 – 50 g. One bulb produces 10-12 bulblets of this size in two years. These should be dug in the month of Feb- March when the leaves become dry and replanted within 15-20 days of digging. Treat the tuber with 0.1% Bavistin for 30 minutes before storage.

Contributed By:

Dr. R. K. Pandey, SKUAST-Jammu

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