Rose Cultivation in India
Rose has always been admired for its beauty and fragrance. It occupies the first position in International market of cut flowers. Rose cultivation in india is becoming more and more popular because of its increase in demand as cut flower and higher commercial gains.
Commercial rose flower growing include production and sale of plants, flower and their products. The rose flowers are marketed either as loose flowers or as cut flowers. In loose flower trade fully developed flowers suitable for garland making are marketed.
These flowers are also used for worshipping. Temperate pockets of Jammu region are congenial for its off-season production.
1. Climate: Moderately cool climate with bright sunshine and free ventilation is very good for rose cultivation in India. Most rose cultivars grow best at a temperature range of 15-270C producing good quality and quantity of flowers.
2. Soil and its Preparation: The ideal soil for rose flowers should be medium loam having sufficient organic matter, proper drainage and pH of 6.0 to 7.0. The soil should be thoroughly dug or ploughed 20-30 cm deep and kept open to sun for at least 15 days.
For rose plant cultivation, after removing the weeds, the field should be reploughed and leveled. The land with high water table is not suitable for rose cultivation.
3. Planting: Before rose planting, prepare a small pit (30×30 cm) to accommodate the earth ball of a new plant. Though the planting of roses on plains can be done from August to March but the best time is September-October.
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In the hills the best planting time is February-March.
4. Spacing: Different spacing is recommended for cultivation different types of rose used for different purpose.
Hybrid Tea and Floribunda roses for beautification in the gardens are planted at a distance of 75 cm while, Polyantha and Miniature roses require about 45 cm spacing and climbers and standards planted about 2 meters apart.
A closer spacing of 40×20 cm is normally followed for plantations in green house.
5. Propagation: Rose flowers are commercially propagated by ‘T’ or shield budding on the rootstock. But rootstocks and miniature roses are propagated by cuttings. The best time of budding is from December to February.
(i) Selection of rootstock: The selection of rootstock depends on the soil and climatic condition of the place and different rootstocks are used under different conditions. Rosa indica var. odorata in Jammu conditions is commonly used for budding.
(ii) Budding Procedure: The budding is done about 5-8 cm above the ground level on a strong stem of the root-stock, about the thickness of an ordinary pencil after cleaning the stem and removing the thorns.
The other branches on the root-stock plant are removed, leaving only a single stem for budding. Bud wood about 2.5 cm long is taken from below the faded flower with the help of a sharp knife by cutting a little in to the bark.
This bud is then inserted in the T shaped incision (about 2.5 cm) made on the stem of root-stock after opening the top with the help of the flat end of the knife. Later, alkathene taps, about 45 cm long and 6 cm wide is bound around the bud point, keeping the eye open and after union of buds, budding starts growing.
Also Read: How to Grow and Protect Gerbera Flowers
Commercial varieties: Pink- Pusa Gaurav ; Red- Super star, Montezuma, Mercedies, Pusa Priya and First Red
Bedding varieties: Pink- Pusa Gaurav; Red- Montezuma, Superstar, Christian Dior, Oklahama, Happiness, Pusa Bahadur.
Exhibition varieties: First Prize, Eiffel Tower, Pusa Sonia; Red- Christian Dior, Montezuma, Super Star,
Scented varieties: Crimson Glory, La France, Sugandha
7. Manure and Fertilizer: Manuring in case of new planting is done at the time of preparation of rose beds or pits, and for the established plants the normal practice is to add well decomposed FYM 8-10 kg/pit just after pruning.
For applying NPK through fertilizers we require a mixture of about 50 gm/ plant or 10 kg/ 100 sq mt. A mixture of Urea, Single Super phosphate and Potassium Sulphate in the ratio of 1:3:2 in three applications, first at pruning second at the end of December when the first flush is over and third at the end of February.
8. Irrigation: The frequency of irrigation depends on many factors such as growth, soil texture, climate and glass house or field condition etc. Maintain adequate soil moisture at all stages of its growth and flowering is essential.
9. Interculture operations:
(i) Pruning: Correct pruning is an essential factor for success in rose growing and therefore, it should be done with precision and care.
The best time of pruning is when rains are completely over and winter is approaching. This condition prevails under North Indian Plains from end of September to middle of October.
(ii) Pinching: Removal of a part of terminal growing portion of stem is called pinching which is practiced in newly budded plants to promote axillary branching.
(iii) Disbudding: To keep only the central bud and removal of others bud cause development of a quality bloom which is generally followed in hybrid tea roses for cut flower purpose.
10. Harvesting stage: The flowers for decoration and marketing should be cut at the tight bud stage when the buds show their colour but the petals have not yet started unfurling.
11. Rose Plant protection:
(i) Aphids: These appear in winter months on leaves and flower buds.
Control: Spraying 0.1% Metasystox or Rogor
(ii) Chafer beetles: The adults of these beetles appear in August-September and cut away the leaves.
Control: Controlled by spraying of 0.1% Sevin.
(B) Rose Flowers Diseases:
(i) Die-back (Diplodia roseum): This is very serious disease of rose and appears after pruning. As the name indicates the disease enters from the top and proceeds downwards mostly through cut wounds or dried flowers/ branches.
Control: Removal of affected part about an inch below in the healthy tissues and use of Bavistin paste/spray afterwards control the disease.
(ii) Black spot: Dark brown to blackish circular spots appear on leaves. Older leaves on lower side are infected first then the disease spreads on upper leaves.
Control: It can be easily controlled by spraying 0.2% Captan at fortnightly intervals.
(iii) Powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae): It is a serious disease in warm, humid and cool weather conditions. Flower stalk (peduncle) and tender leaves are affected first showing whitish powder on upper surface of the leaves.
Control: It can be checked by dusting 80% Sulphur or spraying 0.2% Karathane fungicide
Dr. R. K. Pandey, SKUAST-Jammu